Tugas Softskill Bahasa Inggris Bisnis 2 (Pronouns)

Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (Lat: pronomen) is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun (or noun phrase), such as, in English, the words it (substituting for the name of a certain object) and she (substituting for the female name of a person). The replaced noun is called the antecedent of the pronoun.

For example, consider the sentence “Lisa gave the coat to Phil.” All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: “She gave it to him.” If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence “She gave it to him.” is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous. Pronouns without antecedents are also called unprecursed pronouns. English grammar allows pronouns to potentially have multiple candidate antecedents. The process of determining which antecedent was intended is known as anaphore resolution.

Types of pronouns

Common types of pronouns found in the world’s languages are as follows:

  • Personal pronounsstand in place of the names of people or things:
    • Subject pronouns are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause. English example: I like to eat chips, but she does not.
      • Second person formal and informal pronouns (T-V distinction). For example, vous and tu in French. There is no distinction in modern English though Elizabethan English marked the distinction with “thou” (singular informal) and “you” (plural or singular formal).
      • Inclusive and exclusive “we” pronouns indicate whether the audience is included. There is no distinction in English.
      • Intensive pronouns, also known as emphatic pronouns, re-emphasize a noun or pronoun that has already been mentioned. English uses the same forms as the reflexive pronouns; for example: I did it myself (contrast reflexive use, I did it to myself).
    • Object pronouns are used when the person or thing is the object of the sentence or clause. English example: John likes me but not her.
    • Prepositional pronouns come after a preposition. No distinct forms exist in English; for example: Anna and Maria looked at him.
    • Disjunctive pronouns are used in isolation or in certain other special grammatical contexts. No distinct forms exist in English; for example: Who does this belong to? Me.
    • Dummy pronouns are used when grammatical rules require a noun (or pronoun), but none is semantically required. English example: It is raining.
    • Weak pronouns.
  • Possessive pronouns are used to indicate possessionor ownership.
    • In a strict sense, the possessive pronouns are only those that act syntactically as nouns. English example: Those clothes are mine.
    • Often, though, the term “possessive pronoun” is also applied to the so-called possessive adjectives (or possessive determiners). For example, in English: I lost my wallet. They are not strictly speaking pronouns[citation needed] because they do not substitute for a noun or noun phrase, and as such, some grammarians classify these terms in a separate lexical category called determiners (they have a syntactic role close to that of adjectives, always qualifying a noun).
  • Demonstrative pronouns distinguish the particular objects or people that are referred to from other possible candidates. English example: I’ll take these.
  • Indefinite pronouns refer to general categories of people or things. English example: Anyone can do that.
    • Distributive pronouns are used to refer to members of a group separately rather than collectively. English example: To each his own.
    • Negative pronouns indicate the non-existence of people or things. English example: Nobody thinks that.
  • Relative pronouns refer back to people or things previously mentioned. English example: People who smoke should quit now.
    • Indefinite relative pronouns have some of the properties of both relative pronouns and indefinite pronouns. They have a sense of “referring back”, but the person or thing to which they refer has not previously been explicitly named. English example: I know what I like.
  • Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. English example: Who did that?
    • In many languages (e.g., Czech, English, French, Interlingua, and Russian), the sets of relative and interrogative pronouns are nearly identical. Compare English: Who is that? (interrogative) to I know who that is. (relative).

[edit] Pronouns and determiners

Pronouns and determiners are closely related, and some linguists think pronouns are actually determiners without a noun or a noun phrase. The following chart shows their relationships in English.

Pronoun

Determiner

Personal (1st/2nd)

we

we Scotsmen

Possessive

ours

our freedom

Demonstrative

this

this gentleman

Indefinite

some

some frogs

Interrogative

who

which option

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